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Lubicon

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BACKGROUND ON THE LUBICON LAKE INDIAN NATION'S STRUGGLES

Enormous and catastrophic effects of massive oil, gas and timber extraction threaten the existence of the Lubicon Lake Indian Nation.

The resistance of this 500 member nation against an unremitting, oppressive, industrial invasion of their land and destruction of their way of life by numerous, extremely powerful, multi-million and multi-billion dollar resource corporations is nothing short of astounding and is becoming legendary in the annals of aboriginal resistance struggles.

The Lubicons have fought back to defend their land and lives by patiently building a global network of organizations and individuals to support their legal battles, boycotts, lobbying, negotiations with the Canadian government and - when all else failed - a blockade.

International public support has immensely aided their courageous and principled stand to protect their fragile boreal forest homeland -- some of North America's resource richest land -- from even greater depradation.

But time is running out. How long the Lubicon can endure the merciless onslaught depends on you.

"I hope people will understand we're trying to survive from day to day and need all the help we can get from the general public. It's a battle against time. We realize that and the other side knows that." - Lubicon Chief Bernard Ominayak

The Lubicon Cree

The Lubicon Lake Indian Nation is a small aboriginal society living in northern Alberta, Canada who have been struggling for over sixty years to gain recognition of their aboriginal land rights to their traditional territory.

In the late 1800's, the Lubicons were overlooked by crown agents who were signing Native nations to Treaty 8. They were just too far in the bush, away from major rivers, and so the Lubicons were left alone to pursue their traditional hunting and trapping lifestyle. As a result they never signed away or lost their lands in war, and retain aboriginal rights to those lands to this day.

Although they were recognized in 1939 by the federal government and promised a reserve settlement, both bureaucratic bungling and racist policies kept a settlement waiting and the Lubicons were forgotten once more. In fact they were left pretty much alone until 1979, when an all-weather road was built into their territory.

The Oil Bonanza : Not a Penny for the Lubicon

Massive oil and gas deposits had been discovered in the area and, armed with provincial government leases, almost every major oil and gas company moved in, drilling at least 400 oil wells within a fifteen-mile radius of the Lubicon community of Little Buffalo. Industrial development completely devastated Lubicon society. Moose, the staple of the Lubicon diet, fled the area, along with most of the smaller animals which formed the basis of the trapping trade. Practically overnight an intact and self-sufficient community was reduced to dependency on welfare. Society began to break down: skills passed from old to young had no value any more; alcoholism surfaced; the Lubicons experienced their first suicides; babies were still-born and a widespread tuberculosis epidemic swept through the community. Meanwhile over $8 billion (Cdn) in oil and gas revenues have been sucked from Lubicon territories. To date the Lubicons have not received a cent of oil or gas royalties. The community lives in extreme poverty, and many Lubicon homes are over-crowded, have no running water, and lack adequate sewage disposal.

The Courts

But the Lubicons have met this challenge with a very determined resistance. They began by challenging the province and the federal government in the courts. The courts were a dead end: former oil company lawyers-turned-judges dismissed their arguments; the provincial government re-wrote laws retroactively to dismiss Lubicon court cases; the Lubicons were denied the right to sue the feds; and ultimately the courts tied up Lubicon resources and time while development went on unabated. In fact even the United Nations Human Rights Committee determined that the Lubicons could not achieve effective legal redress within Canada. Indeed the UN still holds Canada in violation of Lubicon human rights to this day.

Increased Conflict

The next few years saw increased conflict in northern Alberta. Oil company trucks ran Lubicon vehicles off the roads; two forest fires were left to rage unchecked, wiping out 250 square miles of traditional Lubicon territory and destroying traplines; Union Oil was forced to abandon a pipeline across Lubicon territories after the nation warned them they were facing confrontation on the ground; the feds appointed an independent investigator then fired him when his report was seen as too favourable to the Lubicons; and throughout it all the Lubicons worked tirelessly to build support for their struggle.

Things came to a head in 1988. The Calgary Winter Olympics were on. Their flagship arts exhibit, a show of Native artifacts called "The Spirit Sings", was sponsored by the very corporations currently destroying the Lubicon community. At the request of the Lubicon people, museums around the world refused to send artifacts, crippling the exhibit. Striking cabbies carried support signs for the Lubicons on their cars. The Olympic Torch Relay, organized by Petro Canada, was met with demonstrations across the country. The Lubicons were daily news. But still the government was stalling.

A Deal with the Province

In the fall of 1988, frustrated by their lack of progress in the courts and government intransigence, the Lubicons declared themselves a sovereign nation and withdrew all legal actions. Several days later they set up passport control points on all access roads to their lands and barred entry to any corporation not possessing a Lubicon-issued permit. The blockades gained national and international support. Alberta Premier Don Getty refused to negotiate until the blockades were down, sending in RCMP agents within a few days to tear them down and arrest 27 people. When they were released, Chief Bernard Ominayak met with Getty and the two signed what is now known as the Grimshaw Accord, an agreement between the two concerning the size of the proposed Lubicon reserve. All they needed was to negotiate a similar deal with the feds.

Federal Sabotage

The feds were in the middle of the 1988 election campaign and the Lubicons were becoming a thorny issue. Prime Minister Mulroney met with Ominayak and promised to negotiate, raising Lubicon hopes and getting the Lubicon issue out of his way for the remainder of the election campaign. But Mulroney's re-elected government deliberately sabotaged these negotiations on January 24, 1989, when the feds tabled a take-it-or-leave-it offer which they knew in advance was unacceptable. The deal allows for the construction of new housing and roads, but leaves the Lubicons dependent on welfare rather than providing the compensation necessary for developing a meaningful economy. Within hours of the breakdown of negotiations, the feds had a propaganda campaign in full swing accusing the Lubicons of "greed not need".

Not satisfied with denying the Lubicons any hope of a negotiated settlement, the feds then set out to undermine the Lubicon leadership. Federal agents were sent in to northern Alberta in the spring of 1989 to meet with a dissident Lubicon member. He was instructed to find other dissidents, and, with government backing, organize the overthrow of the Lubicon leadership in upcoming fall election. Upon hearing of the challenge to his leadership Ominayak called an election to allow the dissidents to put their case before the community. No one ran against him, and the entire Lubicon leadership was re-elected unanimously in the biggest voter turn-out ever. Federal agents then set about organizing a rival band called the Woodland Cree. Drawing Native people from all over Alberta, this rival band was created using an obscure section of the Indian Act which allows the Minister of Indian Affairs to create bands at will and take land and funds away from existing bands to support his creations. The Woodland Cree, a group that never existed before, were fast-tracked into existence and asked to vote on a proposed land settlement which mirrored the "take-it-or-leave it" one offered the Lubicons. Woodland members, who may number up to 700 (band lists have never been released), were given $50 to vote and $1000 per family member if they voted in favour of the agreement. Once the agreement was signed, band members were informed that their $1000 per family member would be deducted from welfare payments.

Daishowa Moves In

Already reeling from the effects of oil and gas development, the Lubicons now face a new threat in the form of clear-cut logging. Daishowa, a transnational paper manufacturer, was granted timber rights in 1989 throughout almost the entire unceded Lubicon traditional territory to feed their nearby Peace River pulp mill. The mill requires the cutting of some 11,000 trees daily - about 70 football fields daily. Daishowa-owned Brewster Construction and another company called Buchanan Lumber -- a separate company to whom the Alberta government sold softwood timber rights in the unceded Lubicon territory but who are required to provide any hardwood from their logging operations on Lubicon lands to Daishowa -- went ahead with logging in the fall of 1990. Ominayak responded by warning all companies with operations on Lubicon territory that unauthorized developments would be removed without further notice. One late November night Buchanan's logging camp was torched, causing $25,000 damage, and ending the logging for that season.

A Boycott So Successful, They Shut it Down

When Daishowa planned to return in the fall of 1991, Lubicon supporters began an international boycott of Daishowa products. Across Canada, major Daishowa customers began finding other suppliers for their paper bags. The commencement of boycott activity was instrumental in convincing Daishowa to cancel logging plans for the winter of 1991. With the boycott in effect, Daishowa did not clear-cut on Lubicon land.

To end the boycott, all Daishowa was asked to do was make a clear, unequivocal and public commitment not to log or buy wood cut on the unceded Lubicon territory until the land rights are settled and a harvesting agreement respecting Lubicon wildlife and environmental concerns is reached.

Instead, Daishowa responded with legal action against Friends of the Lubicon, obtaining a temporary injunction to stop the consumer boycott, which the company claims has cost it $5 million. In January 1996, a province of Ontario appellate court ruled that the boycott was "causing economic harm" to the corporation, and was illegal; Lubicon supporters were forbidden to ask the public to support the Lubicon people by boycotting stores carrying Daishowa products.

Boycott Ends, Lawsuit Ends

When Daishowa tried to make their temporary injunction permanent, the Ontario court ruled that the boycott was a protected form of freedom of expression and therefore legal, and lifted the injunction in 1998. Still having no promise from Daishowa to hold off clear-cutting on Lubicon territories, supporters re-launched an expanded, international boycott. Within months, Daishowa met the Lubicon's terms and agreed in writing not to log Lubicon lands until land rights are settled. The boycott thus came to an end. However, Daishowa was still seeking to have the boycott declared permanently illegal -- showing their intention to continue repression of activism supporting indigenous peoples. But, on May 4, 2000, the day before the appeal court hearing was scheduled, Daishowa and Friends of the Lubicon reached an out-of-court settlement ending the lawsuit and preserving Daishowa's agreement to not log Lubicon lands until the land rights are settled.

Current Situation

Since July 1998, the Lubicons have been engaged in on-again, off-again formal negotiations with the federal government. Although negotiations have often proven to be little more than public relations exercises for the government, the Lubicons hold out hopes that this round will prove fruitful and that a final settlement of Lubicon land rights is possible. If the political will is there on the part of the Canadian government, there is no reason why settlement shouldn't be possible.

Unfortunately, in May 2000, in a move seen as yet another divide-and -conquer effort, Federal Indian Affairs regional office officials in Alberta threatened to cut some 20 Lubicon families off federal subsistence social assistance starting in September 2000. In response, in June 2000, Lubicon Nation suspended land rights' talks until the federal government agrees to honour its longstanding 1980 agreement regarding provision of social assistance to Lubicon members. On Sep 1st, after a groundswell of public pressure, the feds agreed to fund social assistance to the Lubicon families in question at Trout and Peerless Lakes. Negotiations resumed in September.

Further to that negotiations have been halted since late 2003 as the federal government has refused to further negotiate self-government and financial compensation -- essential elements of a full and final settlement agreement which would allow the Lubicon people to regain their self-sufficiency. Details about the events leading up to and reasons for the current impasse are here. Lubicon supporters are currently campaigning to convince the feds to return to the table with a mandate to negotiate all elements of a full and final settlement agreement in good faith.


The destruction of the Lubicon Cree

Resource Extraction Effects on the Lubicon
Before 1979
After 1983
Annual Moose Harvest
Over 200
About 20
Annual Income / Trapper
$5,000
$400
Welfare Rate Under 10% Over 90%

Since 1979, Resource Companies have gotten from Lubicon Land: Lubicons have gotten not a penny in return from resources taken & have reported: Color
- an estimated over $13 billion oil & gas revenues from over 1700 wells to date

 

- tuberculosis affecting 1/3 of the community (1987)
- chronic & acute upper respiratory problems
- stillbirths & miscarriages in 19 of 21 pregnancies in 1985-86
- cancers of all kinds
- skin rashes producing permanent scarring
- suicides, previously unheard of in Lubicon society
- death upon unnatural death
- societal disintegration


A Chronology of the Lubicon Lake Cree Land Rights’ Struggle - Aug, 2000

The Lubicon Cree are a small aboriginal society consisting of about 500 people. Their 10,000 square kilometre traditional territory is located in northern Alberta east of the Peace River and north of Lesser Slave Lake. The Lubicons have not ceded their traditional lands in any legally or historically recognized manner.

1899/1900 - Living in an isolated and inaccessible area, the Lubicons are missed by government of Canada treaty commissioners and therefore do not sign Treaty 8. No treaty has been signed with the Lubicons to date.

1939/1940 - The Lubicons are visited by Indian Affairs’ officials who recognize them as a separate, distinct indigenous society and who promise them a reserve on the shores of Lubicon Lake. A membership list is drawn up and left open to permit the addition of members out hunting and trapping.

1942 - The federal government begins its policy of undermining Lubicon land rights by arbitrarily reducing the incomplete Lubicon membership list from 154 to 64.

1943/44 - A federal judicial inquiry regarding membership decides in favour of the Lubicon but the ruling is largely ignored by the Department of Indian Affairs.

1952 - The discovery of oil on Lubicon territory motivates the government of Alberta to question the federal government about the reserve.

1953 - Indicating that the proposed reserve will be struck from the record if no reply is received, Alberta gives the federal government thirty days to report on its status. Ottawa does not reply. Alberta strikes the proposed reserve from the books.

1953 - The Department of Indian Affairs cuts the Lubicon membership list down to 30 through transfer of members to other band lists.

1971 - To ease resource extraction, Alberta begins building an all-weather road into Lubicon territory without Lubicon consent. The federal government claims Lubicons are "merely squatters on Provincial crown land with no land rights to negotiate."

1973 - A federal Order-In-Council reaffirms the Lubicon as a separate and distinct aboriginal society.

1975 - The Lubicons try to file a caveat - a notice that land title is contested - but Alberta refuses to accept it. The matter goes to court.

1977 - A court ruling in a similar caveat case indicates the law is clearly in favour of the Lubicons. Premier Lougheed’s government responds with the passage of a bill that rewrites the law governing caveats and makes it retroactive to a time before the Lubicons attempted to file the caveat. The Lubicon caveat court case is dismissed as no longer having any basis in law.

1979 - The all-weather road is completed. Resource exploitation activity explodes. This scares away the animals and causes the traditional hunting and trapping economy to collapse. By 1983 there are 400 oil wells within a 15 mile radius of the Lubicon community. Moose killed for food drops 90% from 219 in 1979 to 19 in 1983. Annual trapping income per family drops 90% from $5000 in 1979 to $400 in 1983. The welfare rate shoots up from under 10% in 1979 to over 90% in 1983.

1980 - The Lubicons take federal court action requesting a declaratory judgment regarding Lubicon land rights. A parallel action in provincial court commences in 1982.

1981 - Alberta declares the community to be "an official provincial hamlet and therefore no longer available for purposes of establishing an Indian reserve." The province fraudulently solicits people for a land tenure program. Residents face fines and demolition orders if they don’t comply.

1982 - The Lubicons apply for an emergency court injunction to prevent further resource extraction in their area pending resolution of their 1980 land rights court case.

1983 - Fourteen months later an ex-oil company head lawyer turned provincial court judge denies the injunction application. Despite substantial uncontested evidence to the contrary he states that "the evidence simply does not establish a way of life which is being destroyed (by the oil companies and province)".

1983 - A fact-finding mission by the World Council of Churches concludes "government & multinational oil companies have taken actions that could have ( a word has been deleted here in order not to possibly contravene a court order against FOL ) consequences."

1984/85 - On appeal of the injunction decision, the justice sitting at the head of the appeal panel is the ex-law partner of the oil company lawyer now on the case. Formerly he had been family lawyer for Premier Lougheed and had given Lougheed his first job. He died before the appeal was heard. He is replaced by a judge who is generally given credit for convincing Lougheed to run for party leadership. The ruling in the case again goes against the Lubicons. The court writes that the Lubicons can "restore the wilderness" with money damages if they win their 1980 aboriginal rights court case.

1985/86 - Out of 21 Lubicon pregnancies, 19 result in stillbirths or miscarriages.

1985 - The Hon. E. Davie Fulton is appointed by the federal government to study the situation. After a year’s study, the Fulton inquiry report confirms Lubicon rights and outlines proposals for settlement. Indian Affairs prematurely scraps the inquiry then suppresses his report.

1986 - At a meeting to discuss pre-conditions for negotiations with the federal government, the Cree are told to knuckle under to the government or "go to the end of the line."

1986 - The Lubicons announce a boycott of the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary. In support, 30 museums world-wide refuse to lend artifacts to the game’s Indian art exhibit sponsored by Shell Oil. Talks proposed by Ottawa begin but quickly break down when it becomes apparent that promises to negotiate on the basis of the Fulton Report are not honoured by the federal government.

1987 - Tuberculosis is present in a third of the community & active in one in ten - the worst outbreak in Canada since the depression. Ottawa reacts by appointing a new negotiator.

1987 - After three years of study, a United Nations Human Rights Committee states that the Lubicons cannot achieve effective legal or political redress in Canada and instructs Canada to do no further irreparable damage to the Lubicon pending a hearing of human rights’ violations. Canada ignores the ruling.

1988 - Daishowa announces plans to construct a pulp mill just west of the Lubicon territory capable of producing one thousand metric tons of pulp a day. This requires the cutting of about 11,000 trees a day. That’s 70 football fields daily. The provincial government then unilaterally grants Daishowa "timber rights" to an area including the entire Lubicon traditional territory.
Oil and gas revenues from Lubicon land continue to amass at an estimated rate of about $500 million a year. Not a penny to the Lubicons.

1988 - After fourteen years the Lubicons withdraw from all court action and assert sovereignty over their territory. A peaceful blockade of their traditional area stops all oil activity for six days but then the barricades are forcibly removed by armed RCMP officers. Alberta premier Don Getty meets with Chief Ominayak and the result is an agreement on the 243 square kilometre reserve area called the "Grimshaw Accord"

1989 - The federal government promises a solution but instead tables a "take-it-or-leave-it" offer that is described by Premier Getty as "deficient in the area of providing economic stability for the future." Chief Ominayak comments that "In essence the Canadian government has offered to build houses for the Lubicon people and to support us forever on welfare - like animals in the zoo who are cared for and fed at an appointed time".

1989 - Using an obscure clause of the Indian Act, Indian Affairs creates the "Woodland Cree" to draw members away from the Lubicon, thereby decreasing any possible settlement. With unprecedented speed Ottawa recognizes a group of disparate individuals as a "band" while ignoring seventy aboriginal societies waiting fifty or more years for recognition.

1989 - Meanwhile, a conference of thirty international organizations that support Indian land rights concludes Canada is using "fraudulent & criminal action to deliberately split the Lubicon Cree Nation."

1990 - After six years of deliberation, the United Nations charges Canada with a human rights violation under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights stating that "recent developments threaten the way of life and culture of the Lubicon Lake Cree and constitute a violation of Article 27 so long as they continue". The charge stands to this day.

1990 - Daishowa-owned Brewster Construction clearcuts on Lubicon land. A Daishowa-related company, also clearcutting there, has some logging equipment torched. No one is hurt but thirteen Lubicons are charged. Five years later the charges are stayed.

1991 - The federal government offers the Woodland Cree a proposal similar to the 1989 "take-it-or-leave-it" offer. To insure acceptance, the federal government offers voters $1000 payable to each member when the deal is accepted. After the vote Ottawa reduces their welfare payments by the same amount.

1991 - Ottawa announces negotiations are in progress with the Loon River Cree, a neighbouring band. Again the federal government argues that Loon River members include some Lubicons and therefore a settlement at Loon River will necessarily decrease any future Lubicon settlement.

1991 - An international boycott of Daishowa is launched to protest the company’s plan to resume clearcutting on Lubicon land. In response, Daishowa doesn’t log there in the ‘91-’92 winter logging season saying they will review logging plans on a yearly basis.

1992 - Prominent Albertans convene a non-partisan Commission of Review to study the Lubicon situation and recommend possible solutions to the stalemate. Both federal & provincial governments refuse to appear before the commission.

1992 - An Indian Affairs response to a Lubicon settlement proposal amounts to a "slap in the face" for the Lubicon. As well as offering less than the 1989 "take-it-or-leave-it" offer, it insists that the federal government determine Lubicon membership.

1993 - Lubicon Settlement Commission of Review publishes its final report. It finds Lubicon settlement proposals are reasonable while the federal government has not been negotiating in good faith.

1993/94 - A newly-elected federal government states that resolving the Lubicon situation is a top priority. However in the government’s early days in office, an initiative to dismember Lubicon society is launched. "Little bribes" of reserve land, housing and $1000 are offered to entice one of the main Lubicon family groups into joining the Woodland Cree. After Lubicon supporters worldwide protest this action, the federal government declares that there will be no funding for the move. The band - splitting initiative temporarily fizzles.

1994 - Lubicons protest Unocal’s plan to build a sour gas processing plant within 4 kilometres of their proposed reserve. Alberta’s Energy Resources Conservation Board fails to convene a regulatory hearing until after the plant is built.
Sour gas plants remove lethal hydrogen sulphide from natural gas. At best these plants produce sulphur dioxide emissions which are associated with serious health problems. At worst accidental release of hydrogen sulphide by these plants can kill instantly. The Lubicons want the plant moved away from the proposed reserve area.

1994 - In Canada the Daishowa Boycott claims 47 companies representing over 4300 retailers have stopped buying or committed not to buy Daishowa paper products. Daishowa does not clearcut on Lubicon land while the boycott is in effect.

1995 - Daishowa launches a lawsuit against volunteer Canadian boycott organizers. They claim $5 million in damages to date and $3 million in damages on an ongoing annual basis. They contend the consumer boycott is illegal.

1995 - Ignoring Lubicon concerns, and those of numerous groups and individuals who intervened on behalf of the Lubicons at the previous year’s regulatory hearing, the Unocal sour gas plant is approved for operation and starts up.

1995 - The federal government appoints a new federal negotiator closely associated with the Alberta provincial government and the oil & gas industry. A new round of talks begins.

1995 - Another major initiative to dismember Lubicon society commences. A publicist closely linked to the Alberta provincial government arranges a press conference introducing the so-called "Little Buffalo Cree". This is a minority faction of Lubicons that recently lost the Lubicon election and are now proposing to separate from the Lubicon Nation and take with them some Lubicon land —- analogous to say election-losing provincial Liberals proposing to separate from and rule portions of Alberta.

1995 - Alberta falsely states that its 1988 "Grimshaw Accord" commitment to set aside 243 square km. of reserve lands is based on Lubicon population at the time of signing. Citing membership loss to the Woodland Cree, and to the so-called "Little Buffalo Cree" who are in fact still Lubicons the province claims a diminished Lubicon population and therefore the "Grimshaw Accord is (off) the table". Ex-premier Getty and the Lubicons say that the size of proposed reserve negotiated at Grimshaw is not linked to Lubicon population. The "Grimshaw Accord" document does not make the link either.

1995/96/97 - Daishowa obtains interim and interlocutory injunctions shutting down the Daishowa Boycott for over two years pending a full trial.

1997 - The latest federal government settlement offer still contains the glaring deficiencies of the 1989 "take-it-or-leave-it" offer. Talks started in ‘95 break down.

1997 - Trial of the Daishowa boycotters takes twenty eight days spanning a period of four months. Twenty eight witnesses testify in court including the chief federal negotiator and a provincial government official who weigh in on behalf of Daishowa. Daishowa by now claims damages of $14 million and wants the court to permanently ban the consumer boycott.

1998 - The court rules the Daishowa Boycott legal and calls it a "model of how such activities should be conducted in a democratic society." The judge notes the "tragic, desperate and intolerable" circumstances of the Lubicon Cree. Daishowa files an appeal of the decision.

1998 - Daishowa agrees not to log or buy wood cut on Lubicon land until the land rights are settled. The Lubicons and supporters call off the boycott.

1998/99 - A new federal negotiator is appointed and a new round of negotiations with the federal government commences.
Pressure is needed to convince the federal government to negotiate expeditiously toward a settlement offering economic stability for the future and to encourage the province to honour its 1988 "Grimshaw Accord" commitment to make available 243 square kilometres for reserve lands.

1999 - Daishowa signs a deal with neighbouring aboriginal communities contracting out "logging rights" on Lubicon land. In the meantime Daishowa pursues their court action against Lubicon supporters asking the court for a permanent injunction against a possible future boycott of Daishowa which if granted would effectively stifle possible critical public debate of Daishowa's future actions.

2000 - On May 4, the day before the appeal court hearing was scheduled, Daishowa and Friends of the Lubicon reach an out-of-court settlement preserving Daishowa's agreement to not log Lubicon lands until the land rights are settled.

2000 - Federal Indian Affairs regional office officials in Alberta threaten to cut some 20 Lubicon families off subsistence social assistance. In response Lubicon Nation suspends land rights' talks until the federal government agrees to honour its longstanding 1980 agreement regarding provision of social assistance to Lubicon members. After two months of mounting public pressure, the feds agree to provide social assistance to the Lubicon families in question at Trout and Peerless Lakes.


Archives and Resources

Negotiations Archive - links to documents relating to Lubicon land rights' negotiations.
Daishowa vs. the Lubicons/FOL Archive - links to documents relating to the battle between Daishowa and the Lubicons/FOL.

The "Lubicon Archive" is an off-site web site http://www.nisto.com/cree/lubicon which provides a large amount of background material regarding the Lubicon struggle especially for the period from 1991 to 1997.

Please note the address for Lubicon Nation listed in many of the off-site documents referenced in the "Lubicon Archive" is not the current address. The documents refer to the old, now defunct, mailing address in Edmonton. The current mailing address is

Lubicon Lake Indian Nation
P.O. Box 6731
Peace River, AB T8S 1S5
Phone: 403-629-3945
Fax: 403-629-3939

For information on events prior to June 1989, you might want to try the "Historical Overview" document (about 225k in length) put out by Lubicon Nation.

For a book with good background information prior to 1992, "Last Stand of the Lubicon" is recommended. It is written by John Goddard, published by Douglas and McIntyre in Canada, and currently out of print. Libraries may have a copy.

For video, "Our Land, Our Life" (1988) and "A Fight Against Time" (1995) are recommended. They are documentary videos each under one half hour in length. To obtain these videos, contact On Cue Productions at ON CUE e-mail.

If you are looking for more information about the Lubicon than electronically available here, we may have what you are looking for. Try us at fol (at) tao (dot) ca

FoL can provide a speaker for a public or private talk in most locations in southern Ontario. Contact us to arrange for a presentation and/or video screening. We've presented to groups at high schools, universities, churches, unions, and various other public and private fora.


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